Діалектичні аспекти атмосферного повітря

Загальна кількість повітря в атмосфері Землі ~5⋅1018 kg
Сухий склад: Азот 78.084%, Кисень 20.946%, Аргон 0.934%, Вуглекислий газ 0.0417%, Неон 0.001818%, Гелій 0.000524%, Метан 0.000187%, Криптон 0.000114%, Водень 0.00005%, Ксенон 0.0000087%... //wikipedia.org

Така кількість вимагає перейти до розуміння якості.

Показатели

Единицы

Отдельные показатели свойств выражаются в единицах SI, но некоторые, измеряемые в натуральных или объемных долях, могут выражаться в ppm (parts per million), на ряду с ppb (parts per billion) и ppt (parts per trillion).

Индекс AQI

Air Quality Index это численный критерий от 0 до 500, отображающий уровень загрязнения воздуха и угрозу здоровью. Весь диапазон значений AQI представлен шестью уровнями влияния на здоровье. Каждому уровню соответствует предопределенный цвет:

Уровень AQI/Цвет Значение Индекса Описание
Good/Green 0..50 Качество воздуха является удовлетворительным, а загрязнение воздуха практически не представляет опасности
Moderate/Yellow 51..100 Качество воздуха приемлемое. Однако для некоторых людей, особенно для тех, кто необычайно чувствителен к загрязнению воздуха, может существовать риск
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups/Orange 101..150 Члены чувствительных групп могут испытывать последствия для здоровья. Широкая общественность пострадает в меньшей степени
Unhealthy/Red 151..200 Некоторые представители общественности могут испытывать последствия для здоровья; члены чувствительных групп могут испытывать более серьезные последствия для здоровья
Very Unhealthy/Purple 201..300 Предупреждение о здоровье: риск последствий для здоровья увеличивается для всех
Hazardous/Maroon 301..500 Предупреждение о чрезвычайных ситуациях для здоровья: вероятность того, что пострадают все, выше

Твердые частицы

Углекислый газ CO2

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Carbon dioxide is a gas that the human body produces naturally. Everyone is exposed, to some degree, to this gas every day. It occurs naturally in the atmosphere as part of animal metabolism, plant photosynthesis, decomposition, and combustion.

What is an acceptable level of CO2 in a home?
The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) sets standards for recommended indoor CO2 levels in homes. Here is a list of CO2 levels per ASHRAE.

This list will help you understand the levels in your home. You can refer to this list when you read your CO2 monitor. ASHRAE suggests keeping indoor levels below 1,000ppm in schools and 800ppm in offices for better air quality.

  • ~400 ppm background (normal) outdoor air levels
  • 400 - 1,000 ppm typical levels found in occupied spaces with good air exchange
  • 1,000 – 2,000 ppm levels associated with complaints of drowsiness and poor
    air
  • 2,000 – 5,000 ppm
    levels associated with headaches, sleepiness, and stagnant, stale, stuffy air
    Poor concentration, loss of attention, increased heart rate and slight nausea may also be present
  • > 5,000 ppm Workplace exposure limit (as 8-hour TWA) in most jurisdictions.

Угарный газ CO

In simple terms, CO is produced whenever a material burns. Homes with fuel-burning appliances or attached garages are more likely to have CO problems Common sources of CO in our homes include fuel-burning appliances and devices.

While the exact short and long term carbon monoxide levels recommended by ASHRAE, OSHA, NIOSH and other organizations differ, the consensus is that

  • 9 ppm (parts-per-million) is the maximum indoor safe carbon monoxide level over 8 hours
  • 200 ppm or greater will cause physical symptoms and is fatal in hours
  • 800 ppm of CO or greater in the air is fatal within minutes

Formaldehyde (HCHO)

Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable, strong-smelling chemical that is used in building materials and to produce many household products. It is used in pressed-wood products, such as particleboard, plywood, and fiberboard; glues, adhesives and more.

"Предельно допустимая максимально разовая концентрация формальдегида в атмосферном воздухе должна быть не более 0,035 мг/м3...
Порог обонятельного ощущения формальдегида для большинства наблюдаемых равен 0,07 мг/м3. Неощутимой концентрацией для наиболее чувствительных лиц является 0,05 мг/м3..."

Total Volatile Organic Compounds /TVOC

Volatile organic compounds, sometimes referred to as VOCs, are organic compounds that easily become vapors or gases. Along with carbon, they contain elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur or nitrogen.

Acceptable *levels of TVOC* ranges from 0.3 to 0.5 mg/m3 of concentration. From 0.5 mg/m3 of *TVOC* concentration *level* onwards the concern is considered to be considerable or high.

10 Most Common VOCs

  • Benzene.
  • Butanal.
  • Carbon Disulfide.
  • Dichlorobenzene.
  • Ethanol. Found in: glass cleaners, dishwasher detergents and laundry detergents.
  • Formaldehyde. Found in: floor lacquers and certain molded plastics.
  • Terpenes. Found in: fragrant products such as soap or laundry detergents.
  • Toluene. Found in: paint.

Radon (RN)

Radon is a colorless, odorless gas that is produced from the natural breakdown of uranium in rocks and soil. Radon can enter a home through tiny openings in floors and foundations and build up to dangerous levels.

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is one of a group of gases called nitrogen oxides (NOx). While all of these gases are harmful to human health and the environment, NO2 is of greater concern.

Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)

Hydrogen sulphide is part of the natural environment; the general population will have likely had some exposure to hydrogen sulphide. The release of hydrogen sulphide from a specific source does not always lead to human exposure. You can only be exposed to the gas when you come into direct contact with it by breathing it in, eating or drinking something contaminated with it, or when it touches your skin.

Ozone (O3)

Ozone in the air we breathe can harm our health. People most at risk from breathing air containing ozone include people with asthma, children, older adults, and people who are active outdoors, especially outdoor workers. In addition, people with certain genetic characteristics, and people with reduced intake of certain nutrients, such as vitamins C and E, are at greater risk from ozone exposure.

Mold

Exposure to damp and moldy environments may cause a variety of health effects, or none at all. Some people are sensitive to molds. For these people, molds can cause nasal stuffiness, throat irritation, coughing or wheezing, eye irritation, or, in some cases, skin irritation. People with mold allergies may have more severe reactions.

Датчики

Бытовой датчик качества воздуха 2CO9T

https://a-radio.com.ua/ru/datchyk-yakosti-povitria-2co9t/

Джерела

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